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دانشجوی حقوق - تفکیک نظارت و تعادل قوا

دانشجوی حقوق

تفکیک

یکی از مسائلی که ذهن بشر همواره در پی یافتن جوابی مناسب به آن می­باشد،شیوه­ی تنظیم وکنترل قدرت مرکزی در یک کشور و ایجاد قاعده­ای عام برای پیروی از آن در نظام­های اساسی مختلف بوده است.به نظر میرسد که تنظیم و مهار قدرت با قدرت که در نظریه تفکیک قوا مطرح شده است،شیوه ی مناسبی برای تنظیم و کنترل قدرت وجلوگیری از ایجاد حکومتهای تمامیت خواه وطاقوتی است.

نظارت و تعادل

فایده­ ی دیگر این جدایی کارآمد شدن امر نظارت صحیح و بیطرفانه است که به نظر میرسد ضامن بقای سالم ماندن یک نظام سیاسی است.اگر در میان قوای تفکیک شده تعادل صحیحی برقرار نشود،دیگر تفکیک قوا معنایی ندارد ودر جامعه­ای که واضع،مجری­ وقاضی قانون یکی باشند،به سختی می­توان حقوق عامه مردم را مسلم دانست.

برای درک بهترنظارت و تفکیک قدرت می­بایست مفهوم قدرت و سیری تاریخی از آن مورد بررسی قرار گیرد.

دکتر لنگرودی:
((همانطور که آب را وقتی در ظرف­ها می­ریزیدشکل ظرف ها را به خود می­گیرد،حق انسان هم در ظروف زمانی شکل زمان خود را میگیرد))

البته این نکته را هم نباید از ذهن دور داشت که بحث از قدرت وتفکیک قوا در جامعه­ای که قدرت آن هنوز شکل اساسی و منسجمی به خود نگرفته کارآمد نمی­باشد.

دکتر لنگرودی:((نه امپراطور می­توانست تمرکز قدرت سیاسی را پدید آورد نه وحدت ملی! تمرکز قدرت سیاسی که اکنون شما را فرا گرفته است و در آن زندگی می­کنید،مدیون حوادث تاریخی متعدد قاره اروپاست که با تحدید قدرت فئودال­ها وسرانجام فرو پاشیدن قدرت آنان و تمرکز قدرت در دست سلاطین آن قاره آغاز شد و سرانجام با قیام بورژوازی،قدرت را ازدست سلاطین درآوردند و به حاکمیت ملی سپردند)) البته قبل از رسیدن به این مرحله نیز،پادشاهان برای نظارت بهترواداره­ی کارآمد امور مملکتی مختلف،وزیران متخصص به کار می­گرفتند که گونه­ ی ضعیفی از تفکیک قوا می­باشدودلیل ضعف آن،وحدت ناظر و عدم نظارت متقابل قوا بر یکدیگر وعدم تحدید مسئولیت هر قوه به نظرمی­رسد.با این حال تازمانی که تفکیک قوا از یکدیگر و نظارت هر قوه بردیگری وتحدید مسئولیت آنها در قوانین اساسی پیش بینی نشد،شکل قابل قبولی پیدا نکرد.


نمای کلی این بررسی علمی این گونه است:

     اول:تعاریف و نظریات پیرامون بحث نظارت بر قوا

     دوم:نگاهی تطبیقی بر سه نظام اساسی مختلف حول نظارت برقوا

     سوم:تحلیلی از نظارت بر قوا در نظام حقوق اساسی ایران


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