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دانشجوی حقوق - امر عدمی

دانشجوی حقوق

اثبات امر عدمی:
سؤالی كه مطرح می شود این است كه آیا امر عدمی قابل اثبات است وآیا شخص می تواند بر امر عدمی اقامه دعوی كندیا خیر؟
در پاسخ لازم است كه متذكر شویم كه امر عدمی یا عدم خاص است یا عدم مطلق. عدم مطلق مانند این كه كسی مدعی شود هیچگاه در محل ومكان معینی نبوده است.وعدم خاص مانند اینكه شخصی مدعی شود در زمان خاصی در مكان معینی حضور نداشته است.عدم مطلق قابل اثبات نیست وكسی نمی تواند برای اثبات آن دلیل اقامه كند اما عدم خاص قابل اثبات است البته نه مستقیما بلكه ازطریق اثبات امر وجودی كه ملازمت با عدم خاص دارد .مثلا كسی نمی تواند اثبات كند هیچگاه در شهر مشهد حضور نداشته است اما می تواند ثابت كند كه در مورخه 1/8/87در مشهد نبوده است وآن از طریق اثبات حضور خود(امر وجودی) در همان روز در شهر دیگری یا درخارج از كشورمی باشد.
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در مورد ماده265ق.م
اثبات عدم مدیونیت مدعی غیر ممکن نیست ومانند بسیاری از امور عدمی با اثبات یک امر وجودی، میسر است . چنانکه می توان ثابت کرد که وجه برای خرید چیزی داده شده است ،نه درمقام انجام تعهد واثبات به همین مقدار به مقصود کفایت می کند .ثانیا صرف عنوان امر عدمی نباید این توهم را درذهن تداعی کند که اثبات آن امکان پذیر نیست . موارد متعددی درقوانین وجود دارد که اثبات امر عدمی بر عهده مدعی نهاده شده است که به پاره ای از آنها اشاره می شود.
الف . ماده 95 قانون مدنی مقررمی دارد: هرگاه زمین یا خانه کسی مجرای فاضلاب یا آب باران زمین ینا خانه دیگر ی بوده است ، صاحب آن خانه یا زمین نمی تواند جلوگیری از آن کند، مگر درصورتی که عدم استحقاق او معلوم شود.))
دراین ماده اثبات (( عدم استحقاق )) بر عهده مدعی نهاده است .
ب، ماده 348 قانون مدنی می گوید: ؛؛ بیع جیزی که بایع قدرت بر تسلیم آن ندارد باطل است ..؛؛ اگر مشتری مدعی بطلان عقد باشد ، باید عدم قدرت بر تسلیم بایع را به اثبات برساند.
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هرچند از دیدگاه فقهای عظام شهادت عدمی (شهادت نفی) معتبر نیست لیکن آگر آن برگشت به شهادت بر اثبات باشد بلامانع است.  به دیگر سخن شهادت بر لوازم وجودی امر عدمی مسموع است و دادرس باید از راه احراز آن لوازم،  پی به ملزوم برد و لوازم عرفی و عادی دراین باره کافی است (ترمینولوژی حقوقی، دکتر لنگرودی،  ص 399).  چنانکه شهادت بر اعسار نمونه اجلی و روشن این نوع شهادت است لیکن آن از طریق اثبات درآمد و هزینه کرد و بررسی وضعیت دارایی مثبت و منفی خواهان آن  قابل اثبات است.

همچنین با مطالعه منابع زیر صحت مدعای پیش گفته اثبات میشود:

دانش نامه حقوقی، لنگرودی، ج 1 ص 504 و ج 5 ص 195 و 196

جواهر ج4/370/23 و 24

قضاء، آشتیانی،  ص 109

الاشباه و النظائر، ابن نجیم ،  ص 222

دایره المعارف علوم اسلامی،  ص 357 تا 430

سلوک الملوک ص 133

مسبوط در ترمینولوژی حقوقی، لنگرودی، ج 3 ص 2311 (به نقل از منبع آخری).

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دیوان عالی کشور ایران فرصت یافته است تا در یکی از آرای درخشان خود نظریه‌ «اثبات ناپذیری مطلق امر عدمی»را مورد تشکیک قرار داده،اثبات‌پذیر بودن آن را از طریق یک امر وجودی ملازم با آن ممکن بشمارد:

«دلیلی بر اینکه امر عدمی به‌طور کلی قابل تحقیق و رسیدگی نباشد موجود نیست و ممکن است به شهادت مطلعین مشتمل بر امر وجودی باشد،لذا عدم قبول تقاضای‌ مزبور به‌عنوان اینکه در امر عدمی مورد ندارد صحیح نخواهد بود.»

دیوان عالی کشور،رأی شماره 1706 مورخ 8/7/1318 به نقل از:
صدرزاده افشار(سید محسن):«ادّلهء اثبات دعوتی در حقوق ایران»،تهران،مرکز نشر دانشگاهی،1376،ص 25
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مقاله:
ژرف ساخت دلیل کیفری - پژمان پورزند مقدم

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